Some people simply point and click without thinking how their shots would turn-out. While some people only use their cameras for personal purposes. What they do not realize is that behind their camera, there’s a whole new world that’s wide enough for exploration and huge enough to be limited. And if you realize how photography can be an art, you would take pictures in a manner that’s more than just pointing and shooting. Although this method can work at times, digital photography is just not that, simply because it is an art and not just an everyday thing.Digital photography is another form of art enjoyed by many. Beginners, as well as professionals do not take photos for no reason. They know that a great picture needs to have good composition. Composition in photography is the combination of many factors. It may be hard to define, but enthusiasts would understand that lines, patterns, depth of field, light, shadow, texture, angle, and a lot more, are all part of it. For someone who knows that taking pictures is called photography, all these things would matter. A combination of these elements could create a powerful shot. When you take pictures, you can consider playing with all these elements to come-up with something interesting.Pictures are more than just colorful backgrounds printed on photo paper or framed on the wall. Pictures are like paintings. They are master pieces that were created out of the combination of passion, effort, time, dedication and creativity. They do not only serve as simple remembrances of our past but rather, they are works of art that have meanings and stories behind. In every good shot, there is a story that you can tell. Like paintings, the artist himself and the viewers may have different interpretation of the picture. But the more the stories that can be told, the more interesting it gets.Digital photography is so vast that there are so many techniques that you can apply and play with. There are no written rules in photography and there are no limitations. It’s just a matter or how you can make your subject interesting. There is what they call focal point in photography. The points are imaginary and are found in the picture where when you draw two imaginary vertical and two imaginary horizontal lines, they intersect. They say that to give more symmetry to the picture, your subject should fall in either of the points where the lines intersect. Although this is not a rule, it is one of the basic principles in forming the art of digital photography.Like there is no limit to taking pictures, there are also no defined qualifications of who can become a good photographer. Anyone who is interested and who has the passion to start, drive to learn, the patience to practice, and the determination to succeed, can do it. Owning a camera doesn’t make you an instant photographer as digital photography is an art that’s up for appreciation and not just a result of a no-brainer activity.
Golf gifts are significant gifts for men or women because of the popularity of golf in the United States. Golf is a club-and-ball sport in which the golfer tries to hit the ball with the clubs into each hole in a golf course with the fewest number of strokes. According to the National Golf Foundation, there were 26 million people who played golf in 2005, with 4.6 million people playing golf at least 25 times per year. These active golfers would certainly love to receive golf-themed gifts for any occasions. For the golf enthusiasts in your life, sending them golf gifts as holiday, birthday or thank you gifts should be better received than any other gifts. This article provides some golf gift ideas, and explains the use of some common golf accessories that may be sent as gifts.1. Golf Gift Basket:
Golf gift baskets are attractive and affordable, and usually contain golf-themed gourmet snacks, golf gadgets, and a book of golf wisdom. The golfing gadgets may vary with each design, but generally consist of practice golf balls, golf tees (small pegs used to elevate the ball a few centimeters above the ground for the initial stroke on each hole), hand towel. ball spotter, and divot repair tool to repair the scar left on the turf by the impact of a golf club. For gourmet snacks, the recipient may find pretzel twists, gourmet coffee, cream filled cookies, beef salami, cheese, water crackers, or golfers fortune cookies. Your golfer will be thrilled upon receiving these golf-themed toys and treats to be enjoyed on and off the course.2. Golf Sports Bag:
This gift consists of a cooler tote that is filled with sweet and savory snacks, cheese tins, golf designer cookies, practice golf balls, and a note pad for writing down all the golfing hints and tips. The cooler tote can be used to keep the drinks ice cold while on the golf course. This is a popular gift for golfers.3. Gift Chest:
Alternatively, you can send a decorative wooden gift box with hand painted golf design on the top that will compliment any golf fan’s desk or office. This attractive gift chest is filled with tasty treats, gourmet coffee, and some golfing gadgets for the golfer to remember you by when they are out on the course.4. Lady Golf Gift:
For the female golfer in your life, you can send her a gift basket for women golfer. She will find both useful and practical equipments for her games and savory gourmet treats. This gift includes a pack of golf tees, a practice putting cup, and MC Lady golf balls which are designed for golfers who find the traditional golf balls too firm. The lady golf balls can provide optimal performance at lower club head speeds. She will also find a book of anecdotes from professonal golfers. She can enjoy the tasty snacks while reading the stories about the professional golfers.5. Personalized Putter Set:
Golf clubs used by golfers to hit the ball are composed of a shaft with a grip on the top end and a club head at the bottom. The length of each club depends on the distance the club is intended to propel the ball. “Putters” are golf clubs used for short distance shots to roll the ball into the cup. For your champion golfers, you can send them an elegant golf set with a putter that can be disassembled for easy storage, two balls and a wooden practice cup. The entire gift set is stored in a lustrous wooden case with brass handle, and has a brass plate in the front that can be engraved with the recipient’s initials. Alternatively, you can select a putter set stored in a lustrous wooden case adorned with a personalized golf image.6. Personalized Towel:
For a practical gift, you can reward the golfer in your life with a handsome golf towel. The towel is extremely absorbent and can be embroidered with three-letter monograms of the recipient. A convenient hook is included for hanging.7. Personalized Shoe Bag:
You can also send a shoe bag for your golfer to carry his/her shoes to the game. The shoe bag contains an end zipper for easy access and two pockets for storing essential accessories. A convenient handle makes carrying easy and ventilation keeps this personalized shoe bag fresh.8. Ball Marker:
Ball markers are used to mark the position of the ball when it is in the way of another golfer’s putting line, or when the ball needs to be picked up for cleaning. The ball marker is usually a coin. You can send your golfer a personalized state quarter ball marker with belt clip. It is made of sturdy stainless steel, and is permanently attached to a magnetic back that easily slips off the holder for easy marking of the ball in the green.In summary, golf gifts are ideal gifts for avid golfers. You can select from golf gift basket, gift bag, personalized putter set, personalized golf towels, ball marker, and shoe bag. The golfer in your life will appreciate your thoughtfulness while they are out playing their games.
I’ve had real incentive to consider this week’s topic: How permits affect commercial loan underwriting. Those of you in the business for a while have undoubtedly come across an apartment project, office, or retail project with “un-permitted” additions. To be clear, “un-permitted” work on a property is work that was done without the local city building and safety department knowing about it. Even though it may have been done to the latest code, it was done without the local authority’s blessing.When you ran into that property with un-permitted work, you may have been initially surprised to learn that lender involved disallowed any income or value attributable to those improvements. I’ll also bet that it didn’t make a lot of sense to you. The tenant was there, the square footage was there, the lights worked, the toilets flushed … why wouldn’t it count?The theory goes something like this: The city has the right, once it learns about the un-permitted work, to require the owner to provide access to city inspectors to all of the improvements done, whether or not the current owner did the work! This particularly applies to any building safety related work such at plumbing, electrical, and structural. So if the city required that of an owner, it means that walls get broken into, floors get jack hammered, and life around the un-permitted work generally becomes hell.If there happens to be a tenant … who pays rent … around this work, then it’s not altogether unreasonable to assume that rent might stop and for a potentially long time! It’s possible that the un-permitted work could be disallowed entirely. This would mean less income for the property, potentially putting the lender’s loan in jeopardy. The moral of the story: Before taking on a property with un-permitted improvements, make a stop at the Building and Safety office of the local city to find out what is allowed and what the “re-permitting” process will entail. It could save you thousands of dollars.
The cryptocurrency trading software package is an integrated system to manage all aspects of cryptocurrency trading platform like all kinds of crypto buy, sell, exchange, lending, MLM & affiliate management, converting, live market comparison & analyzing etc.
Important features you should consider:
Buy, Sell And Exchange: Nishue is the impressive trading management system offers a smooth and secure methodology for your users to effortlessly Buy, Sell and exchange cryptocurrencies.
Lending system management: This system is completely brokering friendly has a system to manage Crypto lending service, like create manage offers, maintain and moderation etc
Unique Admin Module: Nishue contains a secure and advanced Admin Module for you to control your Cryptocurrency exchange end-to-end.
Separate customer profile: Separate customer profile module that helps your users to easily track and check all Open deposit or withdraw orders, Records, Transactions etc. on just a click.
MLM & affiliate management: This marketing ready automation tools facilitate to manage your level wise affiliate commission, contribution history, and documents.
Market comparison & Converter: Two additional system has been integrated for live Crypto Comparison, Conversion & Depth analysis.
How Cryptocurrency Trading Software Is Helping To Grow Your Crypto Platform:
Coin Deposit & Withdraw: Crypto trader need to maintain enormous Deposit and Withdraw request daily. Trading software aid to manage your activity with its auto set algorithm.
Coin Package & Lending offer: Keep your various coin package and lending offer at the fingers end of your customer. You can create, manage and advertise your offer using a well-designed package.
Level wise commission: If you follow the MLM strategy to reward your respective participants, and worried about set their commission? OK, It is ready to auto calculate their level wise commission.
Notification & Risk management: Every crypto trading platform must arrange push notification system to keep itself and its client up to date about many alarming issues thus help eliminate risk. In this case, a system project is totally perfect.
Multiple Payment Gateway: You can Integrate your cryptocurrency wallet, Local currency, Payeer Even Mobile Banking system as a Payment method within this software to make your transaction hassle free.
Daily, Weekly & Monthly ROI: Are you worried about maintaining ROI as per you said. This cryptocurrency trading management software can auto calculate ROI, commission, and others as per your given instruction.
Free Responsive Website: It must have integrated a fully responsive, SEO optimized dynamic website with our system and it is totally free. It will help you to manage your enterprise smoothly.
Crypto Comparison, Conversion & Depth analysis: Crypto live market cap & coin convertor two addition system has been integrated for live Crypto Comparison, Conversion & Depth analysis
100% secured System: A trading software is designed after having highly security issue in mind. Secured Integer framework, two-factor authentication, and much other security systems have been applied in this cryptocurrency trading software.
The absolute package exclusively for spot cryptocurrency trading that allows users to trade Bitcoin, Bitcoin Cash, Ethereum and Litecoin through Coinbase. Built upon the same technology that powers the Nishue software, It incorporates proven market-leading tools developed over 25 years to provide both professional and active cryptocurrency traders with a better experience than what’s currently offered by other crypto-only trading solutions.
If you keep an eye on the market, crypto trading can be profitable for you. However, you may find it hard at times. Fortunately, if you need assistance, you can give a go to crypto signal services. The signals offered by them can be used to make the right decision, at the right time. You can choose from a lot of service providers. Given below are a few tips that can help you choose the right one. Read on to know more.
When opting for a service, quality is the number one factor to consider. Ideally, the trading platform should have an awesome success rate as far as predictions are concerned. Aside from this, it should provide relevant impulses so you can get a better idea of the market trends and trades.
Moreover, you should be able to receive the signal promptly so you can make the right moves. The service provider should be able to generate signals as fast as possible.
Keep in mind that the service should be reliable as you are going to make your trade decisions based on their guidance. Hence, you might want to opt for a service that you can depend on. This is the only way to make the right choice and be on the safe side.
What you need to do is hire the services of a provider who is legitimate. You are going to consult expert traders, not an automated software program.
How can you find out if a provider is genuine? The best way is to give a go to their service. Many providers offer a free trial service. This is true even if you are going to hire any service, not just crypt trading.
The trial service will allow you to find out if the service is reliable. Once you have tested the service, you can go ahead and pay for it for a long-term.
After the trial period expires, you will have to pay for the service. Here it’s important to keep in mind that providers who offer crypto signals for free of charge may not be reliable. In the same way, you might not want to pay a lot of money for the trial period either. As a matter of fact, the price of packages should be fair so you can enjoy the service without breaking the bank. So, you might want to do your homework to get the right service without spending a good deal of money.
Although it’s great if their support is available round the clock, the important thing is to get the right information at the right time. They should be able to answer your questions until you are satisfied.
Without reliable customer support, you can’t benefit from the crypto signal service the way you should.
In short, if you are going to hire the service of a crypto signal service, we suggest that you follow the tips given in this article. This way you can make the right choice.
Crypto currency vs. Fiat currency
Are you aware of the fiat currencies and the crypto currencies? They both are currencies in one form or the other and are open for public use across the world. But they are both different and distinct in their own ways. There is always one group that favors the use of cryptos, while the other has a soft corner for the fiat currencies.
In cashless society- crypto money play a huge role
If you have a look at the market of the 1970s and 1980s, you will find that the cash played the dominant role. But, with the change in the technology, electronic transactions have become the usual norm. Today, more and more people are influenced in becoming the cashless society. With the progress towards the cashless society, cryptocurrencies have a big role to play.
Crypto currency and fiat currency are always at loggerheads
Cryptocurrency and fiat currency are popular types of digital currency, especially when it is about an online transaction. They both are currencies currently in use in the market but have some differences in them. There is a hell lot of hypes that you will hear on a daily basis comparing the crypto money and the fiat money. This article will highlight the difference between the two in a more comprehensive and clear manner.
Differentiating in what the currencies stand for
Before going for the difference between the two, you must understand what do they stand for and how are they are defined.
The fiat currency is a legal tender that has the support of the central government, and it operates in the physical form. For instance, US dollars, British Pounds, Euro etc. On the other hand, the crypto currency is a non-legal tender, and doesn’t have any backup from the central government or bank.
Hence, the difference between crypto currency and fiat currency is noted as follows:
• Crypto-currencies are decentralized and global in nature. There are no one entity or government that controls the currency with their laws and regulations. The Fiat currency is centralized, under the control of the laws and regulations of the banks and government.
• Crypto-currencies have their existence only in the digital domain. On the other hand, you will find that the fiat currencies have a tangible and physical existence.
• There is a limited supply of crypto-currencies with a maximum set of them getting supplied in the market. Whereas, the fiat money has an unlimited supply as the government and bank are entitled to produce coins and paper money whenever the situation is required.
• The Bitcoin and other crypto type currencies are created by the computers, while the fiat currencies are issued by the local government and the banks.
• Cryptocurrencies are presented as the public and private code pieces. On the other hand, the fiat currencies are presented in the form of coins and paper money.
• The value of the crypto currencies is not recognized by the supply and demand of the market. Whereas, the fiat currency value is determined by the market regulations of supply and demand.
The different types of crypto and fiat currencies
In the last one decade, the popularity of crypto type currencies has emerged as a huge success. It was in 2009, when Bitcoin was first introduced, and years after several other types of crypto currencies have emerged. Starting from Litecoin. Dogecoin, Ripple to the Dcash and Zcash, there is a plethora of them. On the other hand, the fiat currency has a rich and ancient roots, with the Great British Pound, that dates back to 775 AD. It is considered as the oldest currency in the world that is still in use.
The differences in the anonymity between the two currencies
When you are using the fiat currencies, you need to undergo a user identification or verification process. You are asked to upload a recent picture of yourself and some of the required documents to be issued as per the public authorities. You don’t need to undergo any of the required processes with the crypto currencies. Though your personal information and confidential details don’t get public, but all your transactions are recorded and tracked in both the fiat and the crypto currencies.
Fiat currency vs crypto currency: transparency level
• The transparency level with the crypto type currencies are considered to be more. This is because the revenue streams are displayed in a public chain. Everyone can witness their own and others’ transactions.
• The fiat or govt. currencies are not transparent, as there are not public chains to see the revenue streams of the people.
A comparative historical roots
If you compare the crypto money with that of its counterpart, fiat or government currency, you will find that their existence and creation brings the difference. The Fiat or government currency, dates back its existence as early as 775 AD with the introduction of the Great British Pound. This is why fiat type currency is easily accepted by the people all over.
On the other hand, the crypto coin was perhaps first introduced only a decade ago, with the introduction of Bitcoin in 2009. The challenge that the Bitcoin and other crypto currencies face is catching up with the immense popularity and increasing fan base of the fiat currency. Crypto currency, is no doubt gaining importance and popularity in the economic market, but it has still not been accepted widely in the society as the fiat currency.
A comparative history of the two currencies:
• It was in the 11th century, when the Chinese Song dynasty was perhaps the first one to issue the paper money. It was not allowed to exchange with valuables like gold and silver or silk.
• There were Tally sticks that were introduced as a fiat or government currency. 1100 Tally sticks were introduced as a combat for the shortages in gold.
• 1971, was the year, when the fiat currency received a worldwide recognition. President Nixon introduced it in order to eliminate the dollar pegging system to gold.
• It was in 1998, when the idea of an anonymous electronic cash system emerged by Wei Dai. Bitgold-the very first crypto currency was created by Nick Szabo, but it didn’t receive as much attention as Bitcoin.
• In 2009, Bitcoin was introduced in the market, that became the first crypto currency that was accepted across the globe. In 2011 and after, a series of several other crypto currencies were introduced. Some of the popular ones include, Litecoin, Dogecoin, Ethereum, Ripple, Zcash, Dash and so on.
The traits of both the currencies
The potential of the crypto type currencies and fiat currencies, accessing their traits is important. You will find that in some of the criteria, Bitcoin and other crypto currency is superior than the fiat or government currency, and in some cases, the latter surpasses. It is absolutely your call to choose the type of currency (crypto type currency or fiat type currency) based on your personal needs and requirements.
Let us compare their traits with respect to certain factors.
• Both the crypto coins and fiat type currencies are interchangeable in nature.
• As per the portability is concerned both the currencies secure more or less the same position.
• With respect to the non consumable criteria, crypto currency and fiat type currency have the equal status.
• Crypto type currencies have high durability as compared to the fiat-currencies that have moderate level of durability.
• Both the crypto or virtual currencies and the fiat or government currencies ensure secure and safeguarded transactions and exchange.
• Crypto or digital currencies are highly divisible in nature. On the other hand, the fiat type currencies are moderately divisible.
• In terms of the transaction process, the crypto currencies are easy and hassle free. Whereas, on the other hand, the traction process associated with the fiat currencies are easy, but not like the cryptos.
• The crypto based currencies are decentralized and global in nature, unlike the fiat currencies that are centralized and functions under the laws and regulations of the government.
• The crypto based currencies have high scarcity, where as, the fiat currencies are unlimited as the government can issue coins and paper money whenever there is a need.
• The crypto based currencies are based on mathematical algorithms, and are programmable. The fiat currencies are not at all programmable.
• The fiat currencies are sovereign in nature, while the crypto currencies are not.
The process of the functioning of the currencies
You can find the significant differences between the crypto or digital currencies and the fiat currencies with the way they both operate and the transaction process that take place. They are contrasting in nature. The transfer of money using the Bitcoin is very quick, and you absolutely don’t need any third party association.
On the other hand, if you are involved with the money exchange using Fiat type currency, a mobile wallet is in use. You can exchange an amount of e-money that gets transferred into the equal e-value amount. Both the fiat and the crypto currencies enable you to purchase everything that you desire. But the processes involved are absolutely distinct from each other.
Depending on the things you purchase, you will find that one currency form is better than the other. This is absolutely your choice.
Is Bitcoin, a crypto currency better than the fiat-currency?
The long term benefits and the capability of the Bitcoins is still not established. But it has been predicted by the crypto currency gurus and experts, that they will go a long way, especially revolutionizing the way the online transactions are done. In the current market, the Bitcoin is mainly included in the online casinos and the gambling, but it is not limited to it.
Furthermore, when you compare the fiat currencies, the Bitcoin allows you to seize the power and authority from the banks and the government since it is not controlled. The cryptography based currency has the capability to create or come up with the free market capitals. Fiat currencies are affected by the inflation and the changes in the market, unlike the crypto based currencies. Such aspects make individuals believe that cryptograph based currencies will soon take over the mainstream currencies and bring a transformation in the way the money is used.
Why is Bitcoins considered to be a better aspect than the fiat type currencies?
• Bitcoin gives you the opportunity to re-create a free market capitalism.
• The power of controlling the money is absolutely with the individuals, and not with the banks like the fiat type currencies.
• When there is an inflation, the Bitcoin is not affected. But the Fiat type currency will be easier to lose and get affected by it.
• The Bitcoin currency is easy easier to exchange and transfer as compared to the fiat or government currencies.
• The transaction fees involved with the Bitcoin are way cheaper and easily affordable.
Crypto currencies seem to be a favorable option among the people
The fiat type currencies are the centralized and legal way of exchanging money. But, the crypto currencies have acquired immense popularity in the past few years. There will never be anyone who would act as a middle man, like the case with the banks. Moreover, the cryptos are way cheaper and less expensive that the conventional fiat currencies.
Send money anywhere directly without waiting for the bank’s approval
You can send money to anyone in the world directly, and it is super fast. The money gets cleared within a few minutes time. You don’t have to wait for the traditional clearing and verification processes of the banking systems, which might take up to several days to get a clearance. Since it is decentralized and doesn’t come under the law and regulations of the government, nobody has any power to do anything with your account.
The blockchain technology has a very big role to play
Thanks to the crypto currencies, that gives us the power and the authority to become our very own bank, and take control over our finances. It is because of the blockchain technology that offers a higher level of sophistication while dealing with the finances. In fact, there are some mainstream financial industries that have started incorporating the idea of the technology.
Cryptocurrency have been around for a while now and there are multiple papers and articles on basics of Cryptocurrency. Not only have the Cryptocurrency flourished but have opened up as a new and trusted opportunity for investors. The crypto market is still young but mature enough to pour in the adequate amount of data for analysis and predict the trends. Though it is considered as the most volatile market and a huge gamble as an investment, it has now become predictable to a certain point and the Bitcoin futures are a proof of this. Many concepts of the stock market have now been applied to the crypto market with some tweaks and changes. This gives us another proof that many people are adopting Cryptocurrency market every day, and currently more than 500 million investors are present in it. Though the total market cap of crypto market is $286.14 Billion that is roughly 1/65th of the stock market at the time of writing, the market potential is very high considering the success despite its age and the presence of already established financial markets. The reason behind this is nothing else but the fact that people have started believing in the technology and the products backing a crypto. This also means that the crypto technology have proven itself and so much that the companies have agreed to put their assets in the form of crypto coins or tokens. The concept of Cryptocurrency became successful with the success of Bitcoin. Bitcoin, which once used to be the only Cryptocurrency, now contributes only 37.6% to the total Cryptocurrency market. The reason being, emergence of new Cryptocurrencies and the success of projects backing them. This does not indicate that Bitcoin failed, in fact market capitalization of Bitcoin has increased, rather what this indicates is that crypto market have expanded as a whole.
These facts are enough to prove the success of Cryptocurrencies and their market. And in reality investment in Crypto market is considered as safe now, to the extent that some invest as for their retirement plan. Therefore what we need next are the tools for analysis of crypto market. There are many such tools that enable you to analyze this market in a manner similar to stock market providing similar metrics. Including coin market cap, coin stalker, cryptoz and investing. Even thought these metrics are simple, the do provide crucial information about the crypto under consideration. For example, a high market cap indicates a strong project, a high 24hour volume indicates high demand and circulating supply indicates the total amount of coins of that crypto in circulation. Another important metric is volatility of a crypto. Volatility is how much the price of a crypto fluctuates. Crypto market is considered as highly volatile, cashing out at a moment might bring in a lot of profit or make you pull your hairs. Thus what we look for is a crypto that is stable enough to give us time to make a calculated decision. Currencies such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Ethereum-classic (not specifically) are considered as stable. With being stable, they need to be strong enough, so that they do not become invalid or simply stop existing in the market. These features make a crypto reliable, and the most reliable Cryptocurrencies are used as a form of liquidity.
As far is crypto market is concerned, volatility comes hand in hand, but so do its most important property i.e. Decentralization. Crypto market is decentralized, what this means is that the price fall in one crypto does not necessarily means down trend of any other crypto. Thus giving us an opportunity in the form of what are called mutual funds. It’s a Concept of managing a portfolio of the crypto currencies that you invest in. The Idea is to spread your investments to multiple Cryptocurrencies so as to reduce the risk involved if any crypto starts on a bear run
Similar to this concept is the concept of Indices in crypto market. Indices provide a standard point of reference for the market as a whole. The Idea is to choose the top currencies in the market and distribute the investment among them. These chosen crypto currencies change if the index are dynamic in nature and only consider the top currencies. For example if a currency ‘X’ drops down to 11th position in crypto market, the index considering top 10 currencies would now won’t consider currency ‘X’, rather start considering currency ‘Y’ which have taken it’s place. Some providers such as cci30 and crypto20 have tokenized these Crypto indices. While this might look like a good Idea to some, others oppose due to the fact that there are some pre-requisites to invest in these tokens such as a minimum amount of investment is needed. While others such as cryptoz provide the methodology and a the index value, along with the currency constituents so that an investor is free to invest the amount he/she wants to and choose not to invest in a crypto otherwise included in an index. Thus, indices give you a choice to further smooth out the volatility and reduce the risk involved.
The crypto market might look risky at first look and many might still be skeptical of its authenticity, But the maturity that this market has attained within the short period of its existence is amazing and the proof enough for its authenticity. The biggest concern that investors have is volatility, for which there had been a solution in form of indices.
An enormous amount of research shows the importance of self-determination (i.e., autonomy) for students in elementary school through college for enhancing learning and improving important post-school outcomes.
Research by psychologists Richard Ryan, PhD, and Edward Deci, PhD, on Self-Determination Theory indicates that intrinsic motivation (doing something because it is inherently interesting or enjoyable), and thus higher quality learning, flourishes in contexts that satisfy human needs for competence, autonomy, and relatedness. Students experience competence when challenged and given prompt feedback. Students experience autonomy when they feel supported to explore, take initiative and develop and implement solutions for their problems. Students experience relatedness when they perceive others listening and responding to them. When these three needs are met, students are more intrinsically motivated and actively engaged in their learning.
Numerous studies have found that students who are more involved in setting educational goals are more likely to reach their goals. When students perceive that the primary focus of learning is to obtain external rewards, such as a grade on an exam, they often perform more poorly, think of themselves as less competent, and report greater anxiety than when they believe that exams are simply a way for them to monitor their own learning. Some studies have found that the use of external rewards actually decreased motivation for a task for which the student initially was motivated. In a 1999 examination of 128 studies that investigated the effects of external rewards on intrinsic motivations, Drs. Deci and Ryan, along with psychologist Richard Koestner, PhD, concluded that such rewards tend to have a substantially negative effect on intrinsic motivation by undermining people’s taking responsibility for motivating or regulating themselves.
Self-determination research has also identified flaws in high stakes, test focused school reforms, which despite good intentions, has led teachers and administrators to engage in precisely the types of interventions that result in poor quality learning. Dr. Ryan and colleagues found that high stakes tests tend to constrain teachers’ choices about curriculum coverage and curtail teachers’ ability to respond to students’ interests (Ryan & La Guardia, 1999). Also, psychologists Tim Urdan, PhD, and Scott Paris, PhD, found that such tests can decrease teacher enthusiasm for teaching, which has an adverse effect on students’ motivation (Urdan & Paris, 1994).
The processes described in self-determination theory may be particularly important for children with special educational needs. Researcher Michael Wehmeyer found that students with disabilities who are more self-determined are more likely to be employed and living independently in the community after completing high school than students who are less self-determined.
Research also shows that the educational benefits of self-determination principles don’t stop with high school graduation. Studies show how the orientation taken by college and medical school instructors (whether it is toward controlling students’ behavior or supporting the students’ autonomy) affects the students’ motivation and learning.
Self-determination theory has identified ways to better motivate students to learn at all educational levels, including those with disabilities.
Schools throughout the country are using self-determination instruction as a way to better motivate students and meet the growing need to teach children and youth ways to more fully accept responsibility for their lives by helping them to identify their needs and develop strategies to meet those needs.
Researchers have developed and evaluated instructional interventions and supports to encourage self-determination for all students, with many of these programs designed for use by students with disabilities. Many parents, researchers and policy makers have voiced concern about high rates of unemployment, under-employment and poverty experienced by students with disabilities after they complete their educational programs. Providing support for student self-determination in school settings is one way to enhance student learning and improve important post-school outcomes for students with disabilities. Schools have particularly emphasized the use of self-determination curricula with students with disabilities to meet federal mandates to actively involve students with disabilities in the Individualized Education Planning process.
Programs to promote self-determination help students acquire knowledge, skills and beliefs that meet their needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness (for example, see Steps to Self-determination by educational researchers Sharon Field and Alan Hoffman). Such programs also provide instruction aimed specifically at helping students play a more active role in educational planning (for example, see The Self-directed Individualized Education Plan by Jim Martin, Laura Huber Marshall, Laurie Maxson, & Patty Jerman).
Drs. Field and Hoffman developed a model designed to guide the development of self-determination instructional interventions. According to the model, instructional activities in areas such as increasing self-awareness; improving decision-making, goal-setting and goal-attainment skills; enhancing communication and relationship skills; and developing the ability to celebrate success and learn from reflecting on experiences lead to increased student self-determination. Self-determination instructional programs help students learn how to participate more actively in educational decision-making by helping them become familiar with the educational planning process, assisting them to identify information they would like to share at educational planning meetings, and supporting students to develop skills to effectively communicate their needs and wants. Examples of activities used in self-determination instructional programs include reflecting on daydreams to help students decide what is important to them; teaching students how to set goals that are important to them and then, with the support of peers, family members and teachers, taking steps to achieve those goals. Providing contextual supports and opportunities for students, such as coaching for problem-solving and offering opportunities for choice, are also critical elements that lead to meeting needs for competence, autonomy and relatedness and thus, increasing student self-determination.